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Living requirements for habitat design

The Space Travelers Web Site!

This is not just science fiction. By Richard Doran

 

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[EXPLORE THE HABITAT]

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[ROTATING HABITAT] [PLANETARY BASE] [ECOSPHERE]

Living space requirements for habitat design.

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Cost containment for a thrust into space

There are schedule complications, weight restrictions and many limitations. People read about space exploration and wish they were the privileged few who get to fly aloft. We need to explore cheaper methods of research and broaden public interest. In the final analysis, space must provide an opportunity that can not be duplicated on earth or must prove to be profitable, by human risk and base cost, to the participants. This will eventually be found in mining and manufacturing industries.

First, we should improve on existing earth based study habitats. It is not as grand or spectacular as space, but it is practical and economical. The risk to human life is minimized. Problems experienced on land can be solved much easier than a craft somewhere between here and the moon.

Second, enhance the research center with a science center. Visitors and students from grade school to college can enjoy these exhibits. This could be a traveling event tailored to an audience for donations. High school presentations will inspire children and improve the future of space.

Third, we should examine practical development. We can develop a basic colonization at limited risk and expense on the moon. The laboratory will ‘impact’ on the moon as an unmanned rover. Remote driving could deliver the rover near a location to meet arriving astronauts. The Delta-X rocket could be used to bring astronauts from a shuttle to the moon and return them to the shuttle. This has potential as a reusable system.

One last thought for our next effort in space exploration and colonization. We should do more development on centripetal gravity. This concept will also provide a ‘Construction Trailer’ for all future space projects. Mars would be explored from a main craft using the same methods developed for lunar exploration.

This is not the only solution, but I offer one possibility. Public interest increases with involvement. An earth based study habitat can be completed on a two (2) acre area over a four (4) year period.

Modeling Gravity

In 1952, Collier's Magazine explored the possibility of long term space colonies living in rotating habitats. How close are space colonies today, forty years later? The Russians have survived in space for one (1) year without any gravity, why do we need a rotating craft? Many studies have established that zero "G" allows bone decalcification, muscle deterioration and a number of other physical detriments that must be chemically and

physically corrected. After one or two years of Zero "G", we will send our astronauts to a hostile environment with a 100 pound or more life support system on their backs and expect them to function at peak performance. If humans are planing to colonize space we must find suitable methods of replacing the gravitational effects of earth. Numerous books and articles have established that 0.5 to 1 "G" is sufficient to maintain health, but more testing has to be done. What trade-off are we facing? The rotation can be about 6 RPM (revolutions per minute) or less. This is complicated by the Coriolis effect. (see insert equations) (see graph also) (centroidal control?). Nomenclature and graphs. Centripetal force is the force applied to a body to keep it rotating about a central point. One example of this is an orbiting object. Centrifugal force is the reaction of the contents of. an object experiencing a centripetal force. (a centrifugal force acts opposite to a centripetal force). Coriolis effect is a force experienced by a change in rotational radius without changing velocity. What will it be like? The minimum surface per person is .... sq.ft.(80 sq.M) per person and the minimum volume is .... cu.ft.(240 cu.M) per person. these numbers can change .... sq.ft.(157 sq.M) and .... cu.ft.(1740 cu.M) if recycling is added. How Many People are required and how does this effect the mission? The current non-rotating space craft designs show modules that are slightly bigger than a bus and smaller than a passenger train. (shape factors, provide table or graphs.). How can I experience it without actually being there? Space construction is like building a house while standing on a wagon. Try to eat while hanging upside down, it's a new experience. Gravity is often taken for granted in the world today. Thrust vs. gear or single habitat. accelerating effects (resultant drawing comparison.). Can anything be done today? (earth bound testing)

Additional reading:.

"Go Forth and Multiply" by Lance Frazer; .

Ad Astra Mag. Jun. 1989.

Space Resources and Space Settlements"

by Gerard K. O'Neill NASA SP-428 1979

"Living Aloft" by Connors, Harrison & Akins;

NASA SP-483 1985

"An Overview of Artificial Gravity" by Ralph W. Stone

jr.; NASA SP-314 1973

Table 2 - SPACECRAFT WEIGHT SUMMARY (lb & ft)

Code

system .item or module

Craft

Pad

Lem %

Hotel

(1 yr)

%

 

1.0

Aerodynamic surf. .

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.0

Body structure

1,042

978

22.0 |

19,800

20.0

 

3.0

Induced envir. Prot.

342

328

7.3

7,900

8.0

 

4.0

launch & recovery

50

480

5.8

 

N/a

*2

5.0

Main propulsion

469

1,113

17.2

16,800

17.0

 

6.0

Orient control

344

13

3.9

4,000

4.0

 

7.0

Prime power source

369

573

10.3

10,900

11.0

 

8.0

Power distribution

464

67

5.8

5,900

6.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9.0

Guidance & navigation

78

43

1.3

300

0.3

*3

10.0

Instrumentation

128

7

1.5

1,980

2.0

 

11.0

Communication

111

13

1.4

300

0.3

*3

12.0

Environmental control

291

97

4.2

3,960

4.0

 

13.0

Reserved unknown

610

331

10.2

9,900

10.0

 

14.0

Personnel provisions

98

53

1.6

1,980

2.0

 

15.0

Crew control panel

239

3

2.6

1,980

2.0

 

16.0

Safety and abort

 

1,000

1.0

 

 

*4

 

Subtotal (dry wt.)

4,635

4,099

95.1

86,700

85.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17.0

Personnel

 

 

 

4,356

4.4

 

18.0

Cargo

 

 

 

1,980

2.0

 

19.0

Ordnance

26

26

0.6

990

1.0

 

20.0

Ballast

 

 

 

 

 

 

21.0

Residuals

120

270

4.3

4,950

5.0

 

 

Subtotals (inert wt.)

4,781

4,395

100%

99,000

100%

*1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

23.0

In flight losses

693

326

1,500

 

 

 

24.0

Orbit decay propel

 

 

 

 

 

 

25.0

Full thrust

4,979

17,334

 

101,000

 

 

26.0

Thrust buildup

 

 

 

 

 

 

27.0

Preignition loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total (gross wt.)

10,453

22,055

 

200,000

 

 

 

Design envelope (ft.3)

750

850

 

 

 

 

 

Pressurized volume (ft.3)

250

 

 

11,000

 

*5

 

Design env. Surf. Area (ft.2)

550

550

 

 

 

 

 

Pressurized surf. Area (ft.2)

 

 

 

3,110

 

 

 

Design man/days

4

 

 

2200

 

 

 

Design vol/man*5

125

 

 

1,800 - 2,000

 

 

 

Design impact max.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Design power (kw)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Design temp. (t)

 

 

 

 

 

 

*1 Fundamental Techniques of Weight Estimating and Forecasting NASA TN D-6349 1971

*2 Estimate for one way delivery. (empty impact on lunar surface)

*3 Some systems are in tact and will not grow much if at all

*4 Long duration visit demands additional systems

*5 Vol/Man approx. 1800 cubic ft. - Space Resource and Settlement NASA SP-428 1979

Craft Design Basis

US units

Metric

Equation or Variable (in English Units)

Habitat Radius CL

47 feet

 

(R1) Given for estimate

Tube Radius, Inside

7 feet

 

(r1) Given for estimate

Outside

8 feet

 

[r1 + (1 foot Wall typical thickness)] = r2

Maximum

55 feet

 

(R1 + r2) = R2

Floor Width

 

 

  1. [(r12) - (32)]1/2 * 2 = w1

Total Floor Space

 

 

  1. (R1 + 3 foot) * w1

Habitat Volume

 

 

[(pi) * r12 * (pi) * 2 * R1 ] = V1

Number of People

12

 

(P1) Given for estimate

Volume Per Person

 

 

(V1 / P1) = V2

Rotational Velocity

6 RPM

6 RPM

  • (gc / r ) 1/2= w2
  • Horizontal Velocity

     

     

    (w2 * (pi) * 2 * R1) = V2

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    1. The floor width assumes the floor is 3 feet below the habitat center line.
    2. Assume a standard habitat gravity of 0.5 gc (16.08 feet per sec., 4.9 Meter per sec.)
    3. Gravity can be increased to 1.0 gc with the use of a weighted suite.
    4. Normal Operating Environment 1 atm, (14.7 Psi 101.3 KPA 760 Torr), 60 to 75 deg F 50 % Humidity
    5. Reference ‘Technical Weight Estimates for Space Craft’ NASA, TN D-6349

    Notes, other calculations are available.

    Living Habitat, Typical Concept

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    [PLANETARY BASE] Picture

    [EXPLORE THE HABITAT] Details

    Planting Habitat, Typical Concept

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    [ECOSPHERE] Picture

    [EXPLORE THE HABITAT] Details

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    Artificial Gravity, Calculations available

    Rotating Habitat

    [ROTATING HABITAT] Picture

    [EXPLORE THE HABITAT] Details

    Mars Voyager, One possible configuration

    Rotating two (2) level space habitat – Side view through habitat with solar panels and lander

    References:

    Standard Handbook Of Engineering Calculations, Second Edition

    Published by McGraw Hill, Edited by Tyler G. Hicks, P.E., 1972,

    ISBN 0-07-028735-X Pages 8.12 to 8.18

    Marks' Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, Ninth Edition

    Published by McGraw Hill, Edited by Eugene A. Avallone & Theodore Baumeister III, 1987,

    ISBN 0-07-004127-X

    Section 11.5, Page 11-95 to 11-97, Rockets

    Section 11.6 Astronautics,

    Introduction To Flight, Third Edition

    Published by McGraw Hill, Written by John D. Anderson, Jr., 1989,

    I have some good ideas to improve this section but I still need time.

    [EXPLORE THE HABITAT]

    Here are some detailed pictures for you to print or save.

    [ROTATING HABITAT] [PLANETARY BASE] [ECOSPHERE]

    Home References History Rockets Craft Planets Orbits Aliens Future Support Time

    Here is a section map for your convenience

    Sleep Galley Utility Laboratory Communication Garden Storage Shell