free web hosting | free hosting | Business Hosting | Free Website Submission | shopping cart | php hosting

Dinosaurs, as brief as it gets.

The Space Travelers Web Site!

This is not just science fiction! Here is a site map for your convenience:

Home References History Rockets Craft Planets Orbits Aliens Future Support Time

Here is some information to help you navigate this section:

Life Dinosaurs Religion? People Sea&Air Astronomy Space

What is required to begin life on a planet? First you need a planet.

I have to mix a lot of different sciences here so I will give you branches, links and definitions when ever possible. This is all we believe science can prove. Keep your eyes open, I do discuss alien life forms.

Here are some preliminary definitions, used to measure time, for your reference and convenience.

Era: A division of time from a specific date serving as the basis of its chronological system and characterized by particular circumstances, events, or personages. The longest division of geologic time, made up of one or more periods.

Period: A time interval used as a distinct evolutionary or developmental phase and characterized by the occurrence of a certain condition, event, or phenomenon.

Epoch: A particular segment of history, especially one considered remarkable or noteworthy marking the beginning of such a segment. A unit of geologic times that is a division of a period. I won't dig this deep without a space related reason.

Flora: Plants considered as a group, especially the plants of a particular country, region, or time. The study of Botany.

Biology: The science of life and of living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, and distribution. It includes botany and zoology and all their subdivisions.

Fauna: Animals, especially the animals of a particular region or period, considered as a group. Especially the animals of a specific region or period. The study of Biology.

Botany: The characteristic features and biology of a particular kind of plant or plant group

From the big Bang or what ever your belief is, There is a lot of stuff filling the area we refer to as "Space, The final frontier".

Astronomy: The scientific study of matter in outer space, especially the positions, dimensions distribution, motion, composition, energy, and evolution of celestial bodies and phenomena.

* Do a web search or click here for more information on [Astronomy].

How do we know all these things? We examine and test all the possibilities we can imagine.

We look for the things that must be.

We look for things that can't be.

With no proof, we are left with "could be", "might be", and "should be".

The record of time ... tracks from the past

Carbon Dating: The determination of the approximate age of an ancient object, such as an archaeological specimen, by measuring the amount of carbon 14 it contains.

Quoted from "Go Figure" written by Clint Brookhart, P.E. Published by Contemporary Books, ISBN 0-8092-2608-1

"Carbon 14 Dating is a method for determining the age of prehistoric organic material by measuring its radioactivity. The Technique was developed by an American chemist, Dr. Willard F. Libby (1908 to 1980), in the late 1940's. All living things absorb carbon 14 from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. After an animal or plant dies, the amount of carbon 14 present begins to break down by releasing particles at a uniform rate. Every 5,730 years, half of the carbon 14 has decayed. . . .

Example: If an axe handle has 1/4 as much carbon 14 as a living tree, the handle was a tree [0.5 * 0.5 * 5,730 years ago], The tree was alive approximately 11,460 years ago.

The formula t = [ -8,267 ln X ] is sometimes used to predict the age t (in years) of the organic material, where X (expressed as a decimal) is the percentage of carbon 14 still present in the fossil."

Note: As you work the mathematics presented in this site, please notice the symbols and units used for calculations.

* Click here for more information on [Math] symbols and units.

5 Billion (5,000,000,000) years ago the earth formed from space debris.

* Do a web search or click here for more information on [See Gravity]

For now, let's assume all planets, meteors and space stuff, is made of random samples of chemicals that are found here on Earth. [See Chemistry] Each mix will be more of one and less of another chemical but non the less, the atoms and molecules are the same. There may be exceptions but we have not found them yet. We will keep looking!

In the beginning, how long was a day before there was light? A day is defined as the period of time it takes the Earth to rotate on its axis. On the universal scale we should measure time on a logarithmic scale. Without light, there is not much for humans to see here, lets move along. We will cover light and the sun in other future topics.

How do we measure time? Typically, we measure time by the rotation of the earth. A better scale might be a universal adaptation of the logarithmic time scale. I will expose that more on the geological exploration.

During the Precambrian era, Archaean period, 4,600 to 2,600 million years ago, the Earth's crust solidified. 3,400 million years ago the Earth's volcanoes began to expel gas into atmosphere and 2,800 million years ago the Earth has considerable volcano activity which deforms its' crust. The planet Earth is formed. 225 million years ago Super continent Pangaea and the Panthalassa Ocean

Geology: The scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of the solid matter of a celestial body. The study of rocks and rock formations.

* Do a web search or click here for more information on [See Geology].

3,800 million years ago the Earth's atmosphere started to form. The atmosphere, made of water vapor and gas, needs to be contained. It was finally contained by ozone. During this period, around 3,500 million years ago, our world's oldest micro-organisms (Prokaryote) could be found.

Prokaryote: An organism of the kingdom Prokaryotae, including bacteria and cyanobacteria, characterized by the absence of a nuclear membrane and by DNA that is not organized into chromosomes.

Primitive life had started! 3,200 million years ago the Earth's Algae form fossils that we can find today.

* Do a web search or click here for more information on [See DNA Details]

2,600 million years ago, still the Precambrian era, the Earth moves into the proterozoic period. This is where we have found the first evidence of Photosynthesis.

(Reference only)

Photosynthesis: The process in green plants and certain other organisms by which carbohydrates are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water using light as an energy source. Most forms of photosynthesis release oxygen as a byproduct.

The period of origin of Eukaryotae began. Plant life was established. There are a lot of complicated names for the cells listed here, but the cell structure of each species is the important information. I have listed some names for anyone who wishes to do a web search. You still had to look close to see anything happening here.

Eukaryota: A single-celled or multi-cellular organism whose cells contain a distinct membrane-bound nucleus.

The Earth sees green algae, Chlorophyte, and Bacteria. Chlorophyll is used to produce photosynthesis. Some where during the next 2,000 million years, there was a great evolution in cells and we received the first Protozoans. These are the first known animals. Most people study this topic in high school Biology using a microscope. 1,600, million years ago Algae produce reefs of Stromatolites, excess oxygen is released in the atmosphere. [See "Teraforming" in biosphere] With no predators, life was easy and all living things flourished.

* Do a web search or click here for more information on [Biology].

Protozoans: Any of a large group of single-celled, usually microscopic, eukaryotic organisms, such as amoebas, ciliates, flagellates, and sporozoans.

All of the above represents the Precambrian period, Appearance of worms, jelly fish and Sponge evolved. Organisms have formed colonies.

570 million years ago, Palaeozoic era, representing the geologic time, system of rocks, and sedimentary deposits of the second period of the Paleozoic Era, characterized by the appearance of primitive fishes. The Cambrian period, characterized by the appearance of marine invertebrates, primitive fishes, land plants, and primitive reptiles. Something occurred! This was marked by the appearance of mollusks, brachiopods and trilobites, leaving an abundance of fossils. Life exploded onto the face of the Earth. Now that there is something to see, I should tell you there are paleontologists who study these creatures.

* Do a web search or click here for more information on [Paleontology]

Paleontology: The study of the forms of life existing in prehistoric or geologic times, as represented by the fossils of plants, animals, and other organisms.

Building the food chain

This is a great illustration of the Geological time scale! Each twist covers 570 Million Years of the Earth's history. Click here for the large version scanned from page 7. This was scanned from Fact Finder "Dinosaurs" written by Dr. David Norman, Published by Crescent Books ISBN 0-517-67728-8.

Ordovician period, 510 million years ago, we can see the rapid evolution of invertebrate fish and corals. This is the probable origin of Chordata, a hermaphroditic, or having both male and female sexes on a single organism.

Silurian, 439 million years ago Representing the geologic time, system of rocks, or sedimentary deposits of the third period of the Paleozoic Era, characterized by the development and appearance of early invertebrate land animals and land plants. First sea scorpions are seen in this period.

* Do a web search for more information on [Dunkleosteus], a 40 foot fish. Unlike all other jawed vertebrates, placoderms never had teeth, and did not descend from toothed ancestors. Instead, bony plates associated with the jaws performed the function of teeth, sometimes forming razor-like, literally self-sharpening edges. This species makes the shark look pleasant.

The whole world was a fish bowl. O.K., A very big fish bowl. Then it became a big Terrarium.

The Devonian period marked the movement of life to land ...

Pending graphics

Above, a view of the land inhabitants in an artists conception.

Pending graphics

Above, a view of the ocean inhabitants in an artists conception.

In the Devonian period, 409 million years ago, we can see the appearance of the first land plants and land arthropods, characterized by the appearance of forests and amphibians. This represents the geologic time system of rocks, or sediment deposits of the fourth period of the Paleozoic Era. Predators began to flourish. Yes, the truth is that mosquitoes where here before we were.

Arthropods: Invertebrate animals of the phylum Arthropoda, including the insects, crustaceans, arachnids, and myriapods, that are characterized by a chitinous exoskeleton and a segmented body to which jointed appendages are articulated in pairs.

In the Carboniferous period, 363 million years ago, ferns grew with the appearance of the first amphibians, and insects evolved. The coal forest becomes abundant and is buried in the folds of the Earth. This is how we received the coal deposits we find today. Meteorology has become a relevant subject now. There are living things to get rained on.

Meteorology: The science that deals with the phenomena of the atmosphere, especially weather and weather conditions.

The Permian period, 290 million years ago, represents the growth to dominance of reptiles, cicadas, ginkgo's and conifer plants replace seed ferns, mosses, and horsetails. Great changes occurred in the climate and appearance of land. When the land was dry and hot, rocks formed that were stained by iron oxide. Older species of plants and animals died out. During the wetter years, lush forests grew quickly.

During the Mesozoic Era, 245 million years ago, The dinosaurs evolve...

Triassic period, 245 million years ago, the appearance of first dinosaurs and mammals occurred. The super continent of Pangaea began to split into pieces floating into the Panthalassa Ocean.

Could this have been started by a centrifugal force? (The Earth's rotation)

Still needs a little work and organizing from here on.

(Can't be, possibility May be, probability, and must be are the choices.)

Some were vulnerable,

Some were predators

Claws and Fangs supported the food chain!

Click these tags for more information, Troodon Saurornithoides

What might we expect of alien life forms and distant planets? Here is an article from Ad-Astra Magazine, June 1991. Click to see the short article.

Stenonychosaurus Inequalis & 20th century descendant. He could walk upright, had a larger brain than other dinosaurs, Stereoscopic vision, and opposable thumbs for grasping. Would he be capable of complex communication? Probably.

And another article from Fact Finder "Dinosaurs" written by Dr. David Norman, Published by Crescent Books ISBN 0-517-67728-8, page 126 Dinosauroid/Troodon.

Not Scanned

Fact Finder "Dinosaurs" written by Dr. David Norman, Published by Crescent Books ISBN 0-517-67728-8, another dinosauroid on page 18 of the book but not shown here.

Just click the pick for a large version. Still need some work here.

Just click the pick for a large version. Still need some work here.

Should be 1/4 size for thumb nail link.

The Jurassic period, 208 million years ago, marked the appearance of Archaeopteryx. This is the oldest bird fossils found to this date. Click on the link for more information.

Pending graphics

Above, a view of the land inhabitants in an artists conception.

Pending graphics

Above, a view of the ocean inhabitants in an artists conception.

180 million years ago The Continent of Southern Gondwanland breaks into South America, Africa, Australia and Antarctica. A new ocean floor is formed. Northern Lurasia moves north.

Pterosaurs, birds, ducks, insects, flying fish and flying squirrels. Plants also use the air to spread seeds to fertile ground.

Flight is a fact of the atmosphere. Ducks and fish can fly through the water.

Archaeopteryx: Click the left icon for a larger view.

Artist conception

Click on the icon for a larger view. Evolving birds.

Click on the icon for a larger view. Look back through the documented evidence of evolution. Here is an Animal Evolution Summary picture.

During the Cretaceous period, 146 million years ago, the appearance of bony fish, first flowering plants and true birds evolve. The Drifting Continents, 135 million years ago, Eurasia rotates, the continent of India drifts north. The North Atlantic and Indian Ocean open. The south Atlantic is formed.

Could this have been started by a comet impact in the gulf of Mexico?

Then something happened! The unexpected catastrophic accident. Many species of dinosaurs were erased from the face of the earth.

KABOOM! Uh-oh, this is going to hurt.

Mass extinction of dinosaurs and other Mesozoic organisms, grass lands increase and forests decline. [See Comet] things got real cold. The ice age began.

During the Cenozoic era, Tertiary period, 65 million years ago, The spread of mammals was relatively easy with out the dinosaur. The continent of India moves to collide with Europe, Australia is still attached to Antarctica.

Feathers for flight; Birds, ducks, reptiles, mammals, insects, invertebrates, amphibians and fish, What new forms of life can be found in space. Science is finding life in places that were considered impossible for humans to explore before now.


At the beginning of the Quaternary period, 1.6 million years ago, modern man arrives (whew, about time)

[See People] It is time to move on to the religion page or the people page.

Today the drifting continent of Australia continues to drift north, while North and South America continue to drift west. This is an appropriate opportunity to look at this time scale. It started 5,000 million years ago.





Definitions by the American Heritage Dictionary (CD)

"Go Figure" written by Clint Brookhart, P.E.,

Published by Contemporary Books, ISBN 0-8092-2608-1

Fossils, written by Frank Rhodes, Herbert Zim, and Paul Shaffer

Published by Golden Press, ISBN 0-307-24411-3

For some great artist conceptions,

"Life Before Man", written by Zdenek V. Spinar & Dr. Michael Benton

Published by Thames and Hudson ISBN 0-500-27796-6

Specific data extracted from many books and verified when possible in:

McGraw-Hill Dictionary of the Life Sciences, Editor in Chief Daniel N. Lapedes, Published by McGraw-Hill ISBN 0-07-045262-8

Fact Finder "Dinosaurs" written by Dr. David Norman,

Published by Crescent Books ISBN 0-517-67728-8,

Ad-Astra Magazine, June 1991.

Home References History Rockets Craft Planets Orbits Aliens Future Support Time

Life Dinosaurs Religion? People Sea&Air Astronomy Space